Vocabulary from A to Z:
Accuracy: accuracy of a weapon.
Action: literally, action. In the rifles bolt-action indicates the castle.
Aiming: aim, take aim.
Anvil: anvil, part of the trigger against which beats the cup deformed by the striker.
Armour piercing: armor-piercing bullet.
Assembly: set of parts; in a broad sense, a structure containing more details.
Automatic: automatic operation (also used to indicate semi-automatic operation).
Backstrap: Back of the handle of a semi-automatic pistol or revolver.
Ball: ball, bullet. In a broad sense, it can also indicate the entire cartridge. In military terminology, it indicates ordinary ball loading.
Band: band; term used above all to indicate, in military rifles with front-loading, the bands that bind the barrel to the case.
Beavertail: beaver’s tail; a term generally used to indicate a particular type of rifle rod that widens in the front.
Bedding: structure, composed of variegated materials (aluminum, fiberglass) that separates the action of the rifle from the butt, making better the contact between the metal of the castle and the material of the calcium (wood, polymers).
Belt: machine gun tape.
Belted: belted cartridge caseback. This is how a cartridge is defined which, just above the groove for the extractor, has a protruding reinforcing ring.
Bench rest: bench support for the carbine. It also indicates a precision shooting discipline.
Big five: the five animals considered most dangerous and prestigious for safariists: elephant, rhino, buffalo, lion, leopard.
Big game: big game.
Bipod: bipod for carbine.
Blade: blade; blade sight, blade viewfinder.
Blast: explosion; it also indicates the vamp of the mouth.
Blowback: labile or simple ground closure of an automatic weapon
Blueing: burnishing blue or black.
Boat tail: in bullets, the term indicates the tapered shape of the back of the ball.
Bobbed: gun or revolver dog with the crest partially or totally cut. Some companies provide weapons for concealed carrying with this precaution, to prevent the dog’s crest from entaming in clothes during the extraction of the weapon.
Bolt action: repeating rifle with sliding swivel shutter.
Bore: soul of the barrel.
Bottlenecked: cartridge with bottleneck case.
Brake: brake; muzzle brake,mouth brake.
Brass: brass; in a broad sense, boxwood.
Browning: brown or eggplant burnishing.
Buckhorn: deer horn; indicates a particular type of aiming notch, used especially in US lever carbines, in which the leaflet imitates in shape a pair of deer antlers.
Bull barrel: heavy barrel. It indicates a barrel of massive profile, practically cylindrical.
Bullseye: literally, bull’s eye. Indicates the center of the target. Also used to define a type of screw, mainly used in single action revolvers type colt 1873 to hold the axis of the drum.
Burning rate: burning rate of a gunpowder.
Bushing: bushing that limits the play between the barrel sprint and the front of the carriage. The best known weapon that uses it is the Colt 1911 semi-automatic pistol.
Butt: terminal part of calcium; round butt, rounded butt; square butt, square football.
Butt plate: calcium, the end part of the stock made of metal, rubber or plastic.
Butt stock: football shovel.
Cannelure: godronata groove, generally practiced around the ball for crimping.
Cap: fulminant capsule.
Cap and ball: avamped weapon with percussion ignition.
Case body: body of the box.
Case hardened: tortoiseshell finish, obtained by immersion of the red-hot piece in oil.
Case head: caseback.
Case neck: collar of the box.
Case shoulder: shoulder of the box.
Cast: cast. Often used to indicate unseaded alloy bullet.
Cast off: de-sexation to the right of the football shovel. It is also called advantage.
Cast on: de-shifting to the left of the football shovel. It is also called advantage.
Centerfire: central percussion cartridge.
Chamber: cartridge chamber.
Checkering, Checkered: knurling, knurling.
Choke: choke of the barrel. Indicates, in a smooth-bore rifle, the extent of the narrowing of the front area of the barrel core. It can be indicated in tenths of a millimeter or in stars; one star corresponds to 10/10, five stars correspond to an almost cylindrical barrel.
Chrome plated: chrome.
Clip: cartridge holder plate (for example, that of the Italian ’91); also referred to as “stripper clip”.
Coating: coating; also indicates surface treatment.
Cook fire: auto-ignition of the cartridge. It is a phenomenon that can happen in automatic weapons, when the considerable heat reached by the barrel by firing in bursts triggers the cartridge left in the blast chamber.
Core: core of the projectile.
Crane: yoke; cylinder crane, yoke of the drum.
Crimp: crimping, shrinkage of the box to hold the ball. It can be of two types: the taper crimp, used in calibers that go into batting on the collar, consists of the simple elastic tension of the mouth of the box; the roll crimp, used in the calibers that go in beat on the shoulder or on the back, consists of a bending of the hem within a special groove of the ball (see cannelure).
Cross hair: lattice of telescope consisting of two thin perpendicular lines.
Custom: handcrafted, with custom-built features.
Cylinder: revolver drum.
Die: mold, or series of molds, for refilling cartridges.
Double action: double action. It is so called the operation of the shot that allows, with the sole press of the trigger, to arm the dog and beat the striker.
Dao: Double action only.
To Decock: disarm the dog.
Double set trigger: bigrillo shot.
Drift: lateral drift of a projectile.
Dust cover: in a semi-automatic pistol, part of the barrel between the front end and the trigger jumper; a term also used to define the lid, generally made of sheet metal, which protects the shutter of a weapon from dust when it is closing.
Edge: blade wire.
Elevation: elevation, adjustment of a aiming system along the vertical axis.
Engraving, engraved: engraving, engraved.
Groove extractor: groove for the extractor practiced on the circumference of the case back.
Falling block: single-shot weapon with falling block. The shutter consists of a block that moves down to allow loading.
Fanning: shooting technique with the single-action revolver, consisting of arming the dog repeatedly with the weak hand, while the index finger of the strong hand holds down the trigger.
Feeding: ammunition feeding.
Finger loop: ring resting.
Firing pin: striker, metal cylinder that beats against the trigger by turning on the cartridge.
Fixed sights: fixed, non-adjustable aiming organs.
Flintlock: flint stone ignition.
Floating chamber: floating chamber. It is a cartridge chamber built separately, which can partially slide backwards. This allows you to multiply the recoil force of a cartridge. It is mainly used in the Colt Ace semi-automatic pistol, .22 caliber version of the Colt 1911A1.
Floorplate: back of the charger or tank.
Flutes: parallel grooves made around the circumference of the drum of a revolver or the barrel of a carbine, to save weight or increase the surface dispersing heat.
Flyer: wandering shot, which does not impact inside the typical rosé of the weapon.
Folding: foldable; folding stock,folding stock.
Follower: elevator. It is the piece that, in a magazine, is located between the main spring and the cartridges.
Forcing cone: cone of forcing. In a revolver, the rear end of the barrel, slightly conical in shape, placed before the start of rifcing.
Forearm: rifle butt stick, designed to allow the support of the weak hand.
Forend: front end of the kick.
Fouling: sludge, residues of unburned dust and combustion residues that are deposited in the core of the barrel.
Frame: frame, weapon barrel.
Freebore: initial section of the barrel, between the end of the cylindrical portion of the ball and the beginning of the rifding.
Front strap: front of the handle of a semi-automatic pistol or revolver.
Full metal jacket: armored bullet. The core, made of lead, is forced into a shell of harder metal, such as copper or brass.
Gap: space, slot. The term is often used to indicate the play between the front face of the revolver drum and the back face of the forcing cone.
Gas check: a plate of copper, or other metal, that covers the back of a lead ball to prevent the contact of lead with firing gases from deforming the projectile.
Gas operated: automatic gas recovery weapon.
Gauge: gauge, in a literal sense. The term is also used to refer to smooth-bore rifle cartridges or, also, buffer gauges for checking the size of the cartridge chamber (chamber gauge).
Grip: grip, cheek.
Grip safety: automatic grip safety, which prevents the weapon from firing if not held correctly.
Grooves: helical grooves of the barrel core.
Group: pinkish, dispersion of a series of shots fired by aiming at the same point, measured between the centers of the most distant shots.
Guard: guard, trigger jumper; term also used to indicate ammunition for small shot, with short range.
Half cock: half mount of the dog.
Half moon clip: half-moon plate, with the capacity of three cartridges, which allows you to use ammunition without a collar in a revolver. There are also platelets with a capacity of six cartridges(full moon clip).
Hammer spur – dog crest.
Hammerless: own definition of weapon with internal dog, not activated manually.
Hand: lever that allows the rotation of the drum of a revolver.
Handgun: pistol, short weapon.
Handle: handle, shutter handlebar.
Handloading: manual loading; term used mainly to indicate the activity of home charging.
Headspace: Measurement of the distance between the beat area of the cartridge in the chamber and the shutter face. In a broad sense, it is used to indicate the area of a cartridge that goes into batting in the burst chamber.
Heavy barrel: heavy barrel, synonymous with bull barrel.
Hold open: device, usually a lever, that keeps the shutter of a weapon in the opening after the firing of the last shot, so as to warn the shooter that the weapon is discharged.
Hollow point: hollow-tipped expansive projectile.
Housing: housing; mainspring housing, housing of the kinetic spring of the dog.
Indoor: own activity carried out indoors.
Iron sights: metallic sights.
Jam, jamming: jamming.
Jump: literally, jump; indicates the detection of the weapon.
Keyhole: literally, keyhole. It indicates the impact of a projectile on the target sideways, because it is not stabilized by the rifing of the barrel.
Kick: tread; slang expression to indicate recoil.
Knurled: knurled, godronate.
Land: full, relief of scratches.
Lanyard ring: ring for correggiolo.
Leading: smbagging, lead deposit between the rifles of the barrel.
Lever action: repeating rifle with lever operation.
Line of sight: line of sight, distance between the viewfinder and the aiming notch.
Load, loaded: load, load
Lock time: time between the dog’s beat and the ignition of the powder.
Mainspring: kinetic spring of the dog.
Moa: Minute of angle, measure of the width of a rosé equal to one inch (25.4 mm) at 100 yards (91.7 meters).
Misfire: cilecca, missed percussion.
Muzzle: sprint, front end of the barrel.
Matchlock: fuse ignition.
Oal: Over all lenght, indicates the total length of a cartridge.
Patch: cloth, of leather or fabric, used to wrap the balls for weapons to the fore-loading so as to ensure that they force into the barrel.
Pattern: pattern, type; it can also indicate the type of camouflage of a fabric, or in a broad sense the rosé.
Peep sight: diopter.
Percussion: percussion ignition.
Pinfire: spiked percussion.
Pit: rust camola; it is the small hole that is formed as a result of corrosion on a metal surface.
Pouch: giberna cartridge holder.
Powder: gunpowder; Black powder, black powder.
Psi: pound per square inch, pounds per square inch, unit of measurement of pressure.
Pump action: pump repetition system.
Ramrod: wand for loading front-loading weapons.
Range: distance, shooting range.
Reamer: cartridge chamber reamer.
Rear sight: aiming notch.
Receiver: castle, stem.
Recoil pad: recoil shock absorber.
Rest: support, support.
Rimfire: annular percussion cartridge.
Rimless: ammunition with caseback of the same diameter as the body, equipped with a groove for extraction.
Rimmed: ammunition with a case back with a larger diameter of the body, on which the extractor grips.
Rod: wand; cleaning rod, cleaning rod.
Rolling block: rifle with rotating block shutter.
Round: rounded; in a broad sense, cartridge.
Safety: safety lever.
Scabbard: scabbard, usually bayonet.
Sear: dog’s hooking tooth.
Self loading: self loading.
Sharpshooter: sharpshooter, synonymous with sniper.
Shell: case or cartridge for smooth-bore rifle.
Shot: shot, shot. In a broad sense, it indicates ammunition loaded with pellets.
Shotgun: smooth-bore rifle.
Sideplate: Side folder, which generally protects the inner workings of a weapon.
Single action: Single action. This is how the shooting system is defined which, by pressing the trigger, allows the release of the dog and the start of the shot, but which requires the manual retraction of the dog.
Single shot: single-shot weapon.
Single trigger: single shot.
Six gun: revolver.
Slide: trolley, shutter holder.
Sling: carrying strap.
Smokeless: nitrocellulose smoke powder.
Smooth bore: smooth-bore barrel.
Speedloader: load. It is a device that allows you to simultaneously charge all the drum chambers of a revolver.
Sporter: weapon used for hunting or shooting.
Straight-pull rifle: repeating rifle with straight-stroke shutter, sliding only, like the Austro-Hungarian Mannlicher 1895.
Stud: attachment, hooking; bayonet stud, bayonet connection.
Submachine gun: submachine gun.
Swivel: T-shirt, metal loop for fixing the rifle strap.
Take down: weapon easily dismantled in two parts, by means of a bayonet mount or other artifice.
Tip up: indicates a weapon, generally a revolver, in which the barrel rotates upwards to allow loading.
Top break: indicates a weapon, generally a revolver, in which the barrel and drum rotate downwards to allow loading.
Throat: the part of the core of the barrel between the end of the burst chamber and the beginning of the rifling.
Thumb rest: thumb rest.
Toe: part of the butt opposite to the fold.
Toggle joint action: knee closure.
Transfer bar: lever that transmits, in a revolver, the dog’s beat to the striker only if the trigger is completely pressed.
Trigger pull: shooting weight.
Trigger reach: distance between handle and trigger.
Twist: groove step, distance within which the groove makes a complete turn.
Upgrade: upgrade, modernization.
Ventilated rib: ventilated bindella.
Wad: borra, feltrino.
Wad cutter: completely flat-tipped bullet.
Walnut: walnut wood.
Wheel gun: synonym of revolver, rotary gun.
Windage: derivation, lateral adjustment of the aim.
You don’t have to learn them all at once but you can break them down by number or letters and give yourself an achievable goal.
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